The word "art" comes from the Latin "ars" meaning "skill", and it still retains their original meaning - for example "the art of cooking". But it has come to have a wider significance. In the broadest sence art embraces all the creative disciplines - literature, poetry, drama, music, dance and the visual arts. However as the most commonity used today, art means the visual arts, thouse ereas of artisic creativity that seek to communicative primarity trough the eye.
Wether we realize or not, the ars are part of the daily living of everyone. The ars are important in much that we see, hear and do. When we walk down a city street, or ride down a country road, we pass buildings of various arts - houses, stores, barns, churches. Some of them look attractive or inviting, others do not. However, in looking at buildings and reating to them we are being concerned with arhitecture, one of the oldest and most important of the many areas of art.
The visual arts can be dividet into three main categories:
painted, sculpture and arhitecture. The graphic arts: wood - cutting, etching, engraving, - drypoint, wood engraving and lithography - fall loosely within the category of painting. Line, form, or shape, colour, space and light and shade are the basic elements of the visual arts. In each speacific art from some of thouse elements are relativity more important than others. Colour, for example is a more essential concern of the painter than of the arhitect.
Arhitecture is only one part of the large fild of the visual arts. Too often people comsider the visual arts as involving only painting and sculpture. The visual arts include such things as clothes, household appliance, and thw furnishing of our homes, schools and churches, and other buldings - in fact most of the things that have been fashioned by man to help him carry on the complex process of living.It is the visual arts which bring order and clarity to our visual world. Through the ideas they select the forms they create, painter and sculptores express the ideals, the hopes and the fears of the times in which they live.
It has been said that the arts are"the windows of the soul". The undersanding of grad art of all periods is a key to the understandings of man.
Western art mau be divaded roughly into periods or cultures, begining with prehistoric art, such as the cave paintings and countinuting to the abstract, non - representational art of the 20th century. The art of each period or culture has certain stylistic characteristics that differentiate it from that of the others.
From earling knoown times man has created visual images. All primitive art, whether Paleolithic or 20th century African, seems to stem from the commen needs of primitive people to protect themselfs against forces or their food supply, and to honor and preserve the spirits of their ancestores.
The oldest survuving examples of primitive art are paintings of animals on the walls of caves, such as thouse found at Lascaux. France witch date from 15.000 to 10.000 years B.C. The Paleolithic arts who created thouse paintinges, perhapes the inherior or an order tradition about which we know rothing, portrayed the beasts that were essential to his survival, the bison and the bull. His paintings emphasized the aspects of the animals that were of most importance to him:THE LEGS, which put the animal in motion; THE MASS OF THE BADY, which provided food and THE HORNS, which represented danger. Contemporary with thouse paintings are stone carvings of FEMALE GODDESSES, fertility symbols representatinganother aspect man's survival. MASKS for ritual spirit dances, an art from common to almost all primitive visual expression. Thay range in from the most highly realistic to the most bizarre and abstract.
MESOPOAMIA AND EGYPT
It was in Mesopotamija and Egipt, lands made fertile by great rivers, that an urban society and concomitantly a monumental arhitectural style first arose. In Mecopotamija as early as 3.500 B.C. the Sumerians raised enormous mountains of earth called ZIGGURATS., on top of which they build the TEMPLES of the gods who owned their cities. The ziggurat was an impressive sight as it rose from the flat plaints of the Tigris - Euphrates river basin in Western Asia.